Validating accuracy of web server statistics
For example, in response to polls most voters declared that the ethnicity of the candidate is unimportant.However, by checking search terms in Google Sephens-Davidowitz found the otherwise.However, if the measurement error is random, the explanation may be more complicated.
Cook and Campbell (1979) have pointed out that subjects (a) tend to report what they believe the researcher expects to see, or (b) report what reflects positively on their own abilities, knowledge, beliefs, or opinions.
Sometimes people "remember" events that never happened.
Thus the reliability of self-reported data is tenuous.
However, by examining church attendance records, Hadaway and Marlar (2005) concluded that the actual attendance was fewer than 22 percent.
In his seminal work Everybody lies, Seth Stephens-Davidowitz (2017) found ample evidence to show that most people do not do what they say and do not say what they do.